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LoRaWAN: is a media access protocol (mac) that sits on top of the LoRa physical layer within the framework of LoRAWAN Architecture.


The LoRaWAN is a Long Range Low Power Wide Area (LPWA) Network employing LoRa modulation and LoraWAN MAC protocol designed to wirelessly connect battery operated ‘things’ to the internet in regional, national or global networks, and targets key Internet of Things (IoT) requirements such as bi-directional communication, end-to-end security, mobility and localization services.

LoRaWAN network architecture is deployed in a star-of-stars topology in which gateways relay messages between end-devices and a central network server. The gateways are connected to the network server via standard IP connections and act as a transparent bridge, simply converting RF packets to IP packets and vice versa. The wireless communication takes advantage of the Long Range characteristics of the LoRaŇ physical layer, allowing a single-hop link between the end-device and one or many gateways. All modes are capable of bi-directional communication, and there is support for multicast addressing groups to make efficient use of spectrum during tasks such as Firmware Over-The-Air (FOTA) upgrades or other mass distribution messages.


LoRaWAN has three different classes of end-point devices to address the different needs reflected in the wide range of applications:

  1. Lowest power, bi-directional end-devices

  2. Bi-directional end-devices with deterministic downlink latency

  3. Lowest latency, bi-directional end-devices.


LoRaWAN baud rates range from 0.3 kbps to 50 kbps.


Security is a primary concern for any mass IoT deployment and the LoRaWAN specification defines two layers of cryptography:

  • A unique 128-bit Network Session Key shared between the end-device and network server

  • A unique 128-bit Application Session Key (AppSKey) shared end-to-end at the application level

AES algorithms are used to provide authentication and integrity of packets to the network server and end-to-end encryption to the application server. By providing these two levels, it becomes possible to implement ‘multi-tenant’ shared networks without the network operator having visibility of the users payload data.

The keys can be Activated By Personalisation (ABP) on the production line or during commissioning, or can be Over-The-Air Activated (OTAA) in the field. OTAA allows devices to be re-keyed if necessary.

A technical overview of LoRa and LoRaWAN

LoRaWAN Security Whitepaper

LoRa Alliance Resources




Senet, Eutelsat & Others Team to Deliver Terrestrial and Satellite LoRaWAN IoT

'Senet has partnered with Eutelsat Communications, TrakAssure, and Wyld Networks to bring seamlessly integrated and interoperable terrestrial and satellite LoRaWAN IoT connectivity to customers across the globe.

Through platform integrations, innovative sensor and hardware design, collaborative service delivery, and compelling pricing, the companies are targeting the global supply chain, including container logistics and related asset tracking, as the first and anchor applications. End-to-end managed network services delivered through this collaboration will provide a new level of visibility into supply chain operations.

Currently being tested, ELO nanosatellites (Eutelsat LEO for Objects) will provide LoRaWAN coverage, allowing sensor-enabled devices to transmit data, irrespective of their location, addressing gaps in terrestrial network coverage across rural areas, shipping and transportation routes, and other hard to reach areas'-(fm).


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Last modified: May 08, 2022


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